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Last updated: October 3, 2021
Horseshoes, also commonly known as horseshoe pitching, is a classic outdoor lawn game, great for backyard barbecues, tailgate parties, or afternoons in the park.
This target-throwing game is simple and fun for the whole family, but people’s differing beliefs about the rules can cause confusion.
In this article I will be going over the rules of the horseshoe game, the common terminology used in horseshoes, and how to keep the score.
What Is Horseshoes?
Horseshoe pitching is one of the more traditional lawn games, a game that revolves around throwing horseshoes against a target stake in a lawn or sandbox area.
It’s a serious enough game or sport that it has its own governing body, the National Horseshoe Pitchers Association (NHPA), which maintains the rules and specifications of the game of horseshoes.
As with so many lawn games, there are various stories and urban myths surrounding the history of the game of horseshoe throwing, but there is a common belief that the game is closely related to the traditional game of quoits.
The similarities between the two are obvious, as the concept of quoits is to throw a metal, rope or rubber ring away to land over or near a planted spike.
Why do I like this game so much?
I am quite the traditional person, and as such I appreciate the traditional nature of this game.
What I also like about horseshoe pitching is that anyone can start playing this game, because the basic rules can be picked up quite easily. But at the same time, it’s also a game that requires skill if you want to be really good at it.
- Tested and approved by the National Horseshoe Pitchers Association (NHPA)
- Forged steel construction for maximum toughness and enhanced durability. Forged...
- Each horseshoe is medium weight 2. 25 lbs. , steel stakes are 24” long and...
Horseshoe Game Rules for Dummies
Before we have a closer look at the rules of horseshoes, let’s first have a look at some of the terminology used with this fun game.
A few phrases and terms are essential for any horseshoes player to know, ranging from the lines you throw behind, to the objects you throw:
- The court:
Refers to the entire play area, which is between the back of the two pits.
- The pit:
Refers to the rectangular area around the stake, which is around 3×6 feet in size, with the stake in the middle.
- The foul line:
The line players throw behind, and if a player crosses this line, they forfeit their throw.
- The horseshoe:
The object players throw at the stake. Horseshoes cannot be more than 2 lbs 10 oz, 7 1/4 inches wide, 7 5/8 inches long, and cannot have an opening of more than 3 1/2 inches.
- The stake:
The pin that people throw their horseshoes at, trying to get as close as possible.
When the stake is inside the mouth of the horseshoe, which means that the stake is inside the horseshoe’s opening. If you cannot place a ruler on each end without touching the stake, it is not a ringer.
When a horseshoe is touching the stake but is not flat on the ground.
Setting up horseshoes is easy and only requires a few steps.
First, you put your stakes in the ground. According to the National Horseshoe Pitchers Association of America (NHPA), the stakes should be 40 feet (12 meters) apart (source), but if you are a beginner, you may want to put them closer together.
You then draw the foul line three feet in front of each stake. In NHPA matches, they also create a pit around the stake, but this is not a requirement for casual games. That’s all you need to do to get the court ready for playing horseshoes.
If you’d like to know what an official horseshoe court looks like, check out my guide to horseshoe court and pit dimensions with a complete outline of all the elements that make up a horseshoe playing area.
Horseshoes is a team game, and you should play it with two teams with two players on each team, although you can of course also play one against one.
Once you have decided on teams, you can either flip a coin or throw horseshoes to decide which team goes first. If you opt for the latter, all four players throw a horseshoe, and the player whose horseshoe is closest can choose whether they want to go first.
The teams then split up, with one player from each team going to each end. Whichever team has the first throw will begin by tossing (also called pitching) their horseshoe at the opposite stake. Teams alternate their throws, meaning after each throw, the opposing team will get a turn. Once you finish a round, players at the other end of the court have their turn.
Throws must be underhand and must be behind the foul line. Your foot can be on but not crossing the foul line and your pitch will still count, but if any part of your foot passes the line, your pitch won’t count.
Each player pitches two horseshoes before the scoring for that round is counted. In NHPA matches, teams play until one of them has 40 points. However, many amateur players prefer playing to 21. You can play up to whatever score you choose, but it is essential to make sure everyone knows in advance what score you are playing up to.
Once a team reaches the target score, they are declared the winner! You can always go for the best two out of three though.
Teams can earn a maximum of 6 points in any given round.
The scoring is as follows:
- 1 Point for having the horseshoe closest to the stake.
- 2 Points for having both horseshoes closest to the stake.
- 3 Points for a ringer.
- 4 Points for a ringer and the next closest horseshoe.
- 6 Points for two ringers.
- No points for either team if both have a ringer.
- No points if both teams have horseshoes the same distance from the stake.
After both teams finish pitching, the first task is determining which horseshoe is nearest to the stake. Ringers are automatically considered to be the nearest horseshoes to the stake. If both teams have a ringer, the round is considered a tie, and you don’t award either team any points, even if one team has two ringers and the other only has one.
After ringers, leaners are considered the closest a horseshoe can be to the stake. After leaners, horseshoes touching the stake while flat on the ground are closest. If there are no ringers or horseshoes touching the stake, you measure which horseshoe is closest, measuring the distance from the horseshoe’s nearest point.
Once you determine which horseshoe is closest to the stake, you then figure out which horseshoe is the second nearest. If the closest horseshoe is from the same player as the closest, you add a point onto their score total for that round, but if it is from the opposing team, their score stays the same.
In NHPA rules, only pitches that land within one horseshoe length are eligible to be counted for scoring purposes. You can choose to include your own version of this rule and make it whatever length you choose based on your skill level. The important thing is that both teams agree to this length before the match starts.
Horseshoes is a friendly game, and you should treat it as such. Competitiveness is encouraged, but you shouldn’t let it get out of hand. Distracting players, verbally or non-verbally, is not appreciated.
There are no referees in horseshoes, so it is up to players to enforce the rules on other players, and more importantly, themselves. If someone calls a foul, don’t respond negatively, listen to them and if you disagree, do so respectfully.
Most importantly, be kind and have fun!
As you might have guessed, the game of horseshoe pitching does require skills if you want to be really good at it. But as with so many backyard games, horseshoes is also the perfect recreational game that anyone can play.
A brand new horseshoe set isn’t expensive at all, so go ahead and buy yourself one of those so you can start practicing this game tomorrow.